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Stan 13 grudnia 1981


December 13, 1981 - government of the People's Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life in an attempt to crush the political opposition against the Communist rule in the country. Thousands of people were arrested without charge and as many as 100 were killed.

The peaceful pro-democracy movements (Solidarity and other, smaller organisations) were banned and their leaders, including Lech Walesa, detained overnight. In the morning, hundreds of thousands of soldiers riding military vehicles patrolled the streets. A curfew was imposed, the national borders were sealed, airports were closed, and road access to main cities was restricted. Telephone lines were disconnected, mail was subject to censorship, all independent organizations were delegalized, and classes in schools and at universities were suspended.

Prezentacja multimedialna

During the initial imposition of martial law, several dozen people were killed. Commanders during the crackdown claim about a dozen fatalities, while a Polish parliamentary commission in the years 1989-1991 arrived at a figure of over 90 deaths. In the bloodiest incident, nine people were shot dead by ZOMO commandos during breaking a strike action in Wujek Coal Mine on 16 December 1981.

A six-day working week was re-imposed and the mass media, public administration, health services, power stations, coal mines, sea ports, train stations, and most of the key factories were placed under military management (the employees had to follow military orders or face a court martial). As part of the crackdown, media and educational institutions underwent "verification", a process that tested each employee's attitude towards the regime and to the Solidarity movement; in the result, thousands of journalists and teachers were banned from exercising their profession. Military courts were established to bypass the normal court system, and e.g. imprison those spreading so-called "false information". In attempt to prevent resistance, civillian phone conversations were regularly monitored by appointed operators. (wikipedia)

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